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Old 09-17-2019, 12:16 AM #1
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How Charging System Works and Troubleshooting, 22R-E

(I'm posting this here so it will be easier to refer to, rather than re-typing explanation into various threads that need the explanation.)

Here's the 22RE-liable schematic:


Close-up of alternator pin-outs is here:


White "B" wire (heavy gauge) to the 80amp fuse
This is the battery charging wire.
From FSM:
With engine from idle to 2000RPM, Voltages at B should be:
13.9 to 15.1 V @25C (77F)
13.5 - 14.3V @115C (239F)
Not sure which temp it is. Could be battery temp. It affects electrolytic process.

WITH B-WIRE DISCONNECTED, measure resistance from screw terminal to ground. You should get Very high reading. Lots of Meg-ohms (Sorry I forgot how much mine read). If low, suspect bad rectifier (s).

White "S" to the 40amp (always-on) fuse
Tt should read as close to battery voltage as possible. This senses actual battery voltage and should be connected as close as possible to battery positive. It is merely spliced with the B wire near or at the junction of 80-Amp fuse and 80-Amp fusible link wire. Low "S" voltage means battery needs more charge so the regulator would increase output voltage. If "S" wire and or connection is bad it could lead to overcharging and charge fault error light would come on.

Red "IG" to the Engine fuse
This provides field current to "seed" the charging. This should have steady 12V when ignition is on (coming from Engine fuse). If no 12V here or if this voltage is erratic or engine fuse blows, trace wiring back to Engine Fuse, to "E" battery positive wire from fuse block, and verify that your backup switch or wiring is not shorting to transmission body as shown here.

Yellow "L" to the Charge Warning Light
This should be near +battery voltage when alternator is working properly (B voltage 13.5V-15.1V). If there is a charing fault "L" will go low - approaching zero, and provide ground to negative side of the Charge Light causing it to come on.
(Unfortunately, it also provides ground to Brake Light and A/T Oil temp light- making it confusing to many.)


Most accessible place to measure "L" voltage is here:




ALTERNATOR HARNESS AND MORE VOLTAGE TESTS OF NORMALLY-FUNCTIONING CHARGING SYSTEM:
The engine compartment wiring harness has an "intermediate" connector along the left inner fender, near the power steering pump, shown below:Pin-outs are as follows:

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86 4Runner, 22R-Eliable, 5-Speed Manual, dlx. WHAT'S YOURS?
If you want us to help from afar please let us see, hear, feel what you're dealing with.
A picture paints a thousand words.
Toyota components are bullet-proof. Issues often arise from poor wiring, assembly and/or maintenance. Suspect those first.
Next only to our senses, the multi-meter is the most important electrical diagnostic tool. Spend $6 at Harbor Freight or $$$ blindly replacing parts.

Last edited by RAD4Runner; 09-17-2019 at 12:20 AM.
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Old 09-17-2019, 12:21 AM #2
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Checking the Charge Fault Light and Charge Fuse

I use the terms "inboard" and "outboard", instead of left/right or passenger/driver side for consistency, no matter which side of the engine compartment you are measuring from, no matter whether you're on Australia or the U.S., and even if you're in same resting position as Adam Ondra (LOL!)

Here are expected voltage readings at the two pins of the Charge Fuse on a normally-operating charging system of a 1986 Toyota MoreFunner with Charge fuse removed.
Correct, the charging system does not rely on the charge fuse in order to work. The charge fuse simply creates a connection between the "charge" fault light and the "L" fault indicator wire of the alternator.
Excitation is provided by "IG" wire from the engine fuse.


PROBING THE CHARGE LIGHT FUSE WITH IGNITION ON AND ENGINE OFF.
This simulates a charge fault condition where "L" signal is low or close to zero.


NORMAL CHARGING CONDITION WHEN ENGINE IS RUNNING
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86 4Runner, 22R-Eliable, 5-Speed Manual, dlx. WHAT'S YOURS?
If you want us to help from afar please let us see, hear, feel what you're dealing with.
A picture paints a thousand words.
Toyota components are bullet-proof. Issues often arise from poor wiring, assembly and/or maintenance. Suspect those first.
Next only to our senses, the multi-meter is the most important electrical diagnostic tool. Spend $6 at Harbor Freight or $$$ blindly replacing parts.
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Old 09-17-2019, 12:26 AM #3
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Intermittent Charge Fault Light for Over Charging - 1986 22R-E

My turn to have charge fault light intermittently coming on.
Finally I was able to stop while it stayed on and verified that the system was overcharging (17Volts).
Problem Description:
1) OReilly charging system checker verified all good - test was done when not in fault condition.
2) Condition seemed to happen at higher RMP. When alt was rotating faster and there was more engine vibration. (Video taken while parked and parking brakes on):
YouTube

Hypothesis:
Based on (1), If purely electronic problem - say component values/characteristics in regulator has changed, it would be less likely to be intermittent, and should always happen when I rev up the engine.
Based on (1) and (2), more likely a connection issue, or loose component in regulator.
Intermittent connection in "S" pin of alternator would make it think battery needed more charge so it bumps up output, then realizes something must be wrong because bumping up voltage does not fix anything. Charge fault light comes on.

Verify:
"S" wire was OK up to the front of the alt connector. It always had batt voltage.
There is no way to check if regulator is actually getting the 12V through the connector. Best I could do was clean connector pins, swish harness side of connector in, brush it and rinse with, 100% isopropyl alcohol, plug and un-plug connector while moistening with same alcohol to rub off any oxidation, and tightened the brass contacts. Finally, I coated with silicone dielectric grease and reconnected. Then, I went ton 18-mile drive and not a single occurrence. A couple of days earlier, I'd see the problem so many times during similar drive.


ALT CONNECTOR WITH DIELECTRIC SILICONE GREASE AFTER CLEANING AND TIGHTENING THE FEMALE CONTACTS


ALT CONNECTOR, HARNESS SIDE WITH PIN-OUTS
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86 4Runner, 22R-Eliable, 5-Speed Manual, dlx. WHAT'S YOURS?
If you want us to help from afar please let us see, hear, feel what you're dealing with.
A picture paints a thousand words.
Toyota components are bullet-proof. Issues often arise from poor wiring, assembly and/or maintenance. Suspect those first.
Next only to our senses, the multi-meter is the most important electrical diagnostic tool. Spend $6 at Harbor Freight or $$$ blindly replacing parts.
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Old 09-17-2019, 12:30 AM #4
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Streamlined Charging System Wiring

Toyota pioneered kaizen and eliminating waste. I am a believer of those so I gave Toyota a does of its own medicine - LOL!
In the process of checking my alternator wiring, that bulky "intermediate" alt connector caught my obsessive waste/bulk eliminating attention.
The intermediate connector for alternator is pointless.
Why the heck is it there, when 18 inches down the loom there is the main alt connector? (Maybe it made sense from manufacturing Point Of View but not to owner's POV.) It also adds bulk and more parts to break.
Further more, see that black ground wire that runs through the "Intermediate" connector then to the power steering pump bracket? It is NOT a part of the charging system! It is ground wire for the ignitor noise filter. It does not need to run back to the charging system connector then to the power steering pump mount bracket?
I snipped the intermediate connector off, securely twisted mating wires and soldered well, heat-shrunk and cleaned up wiring harness.
I did same to noise filter ground wire so now it physically goes directly to power steering pump bracket.
Now there's one less part to break, the wiring is cleaner, and my truck is a few ounces lighter! LOL!




BLACK WIRE TO POWER STEERING PUMP BRACKET IS GROUND WIRE FOR IGNITOR NOISE FILTER, NOT PART OF CHARGING SYSTEM WIRING.


GROUND WIRE FOR IGNITOR NOISE FILTER, NOT PART OF CHARGING SYSTEM WIRING, YET RUNS A CIRCUITOUS PATH THROUGH CHARGING SYSTEM CONNECTOR AND EVENTUALLY TO POWER STEERING PUMP BRACKET
__________________
86 4Runner, 22R-Eliable, 5-Speed Manual, dlx. WHAT'S YOURS?
If you want us to help from afar please let us see, hear, feel what you're dealing with.
A picture paints a thousand words.
Toyota components are bullet-proof. Issues often arise from poor wiring, assembly and/or maintenance. Suspect those first.
Next only to our senses, the multi-meter is the most important electrical diagnostic tool. Spend $6 at Harbor Freight or $$$ blindly replacing parts.
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